Multi-User Microgrids: Obstacles to Development and Recommendations for Advancement
By NECEC Institute and the Boston University Institute for Sustainable Energy – November 2018
E4TheFuture provided support for a white paper on multi-user microgrid deployment, focusing primarily on the northeast United States. The paper explores seven key barriers limiting multi-user microgrid development, as well as potential solutions. Professor Kira Fabrizio of the Questrom School of Business at Boston University served as the principal investigator for BU on this research.
Non-Wires Alternatives: Case Studies from Leading U.S. Projects
By E4TheFuture, Smart Electric Power Alliance (SEPA), and Peak Load Management Alliance (PLMA) – November 2018
This report documents 10 non-wires alternatives (NWAs) projects across the U.S. Details are provided on critical insights each project offers for utilities and other project developers.
As models evolve to meet electricity needs without adding transmission lines, increasing use of energy efficiency, demand response, solar, storage and microgrids can bring value as least-cost energy solutions. Using NWAs to delay or defer the need for comparably more expensive infrastructure is a useful approach.
Energy Efficiency Jobs in America – 2018
By E4TheFuture and E2 – September 2018 See state-specific downloadable resources.
Energy efficiency employs 2.25 million Americans, by far the largest sector in the U.S. clean economy. This report provides an overview that highlights the top ten states and gives meaningful comparisons. More importantly, it includes detailed state fact sheets with energy efficiency job numbers on city, county, legislative and congressional district levels.
The report is based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Department of Energy, as well as a comprehensive survey of tens of thousands of businesses across the country.
Massachusetts Micro-Business Research
Executive summary prepared for E4TheFuture by Acadia Consulting – May, 2018
Research conducted in 2018 provides insights into attitudes and behaviors around energy saving opportunities for micro-business owners in Massachusetts utility program territories. Although individually these operations are very small energy users, collectively the category represents a large proportion of businesses in the Commonwealth.
Energy, Economic and Environmental Indicators
Including all U.S. states
Source materials prepared for E4TheFuture by Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. – August, 2018
Since 1990, the United States produced robust economic output while lowering energy use and emissions. Tracking publicly available metrics over time helps us assess public policies’ impact at national and state levels. This set of graphs demonstrates a twenty-five year trend, while providing a means to compare and contrast results at the state level. Investing in energy efficiency and clean energy has significantly boosted economic growth and contributed to economic equity and long term health improvements.
National Standard Practice Manual
By the National Efficiency Screening Project – May 2017
Authored by Tim Woolf, Chris Neme, Marty Kushler, Steve Schiller, and Tom Eckman, the National Standard Practice Manual (NSPM) provides a comprehensive framework for cost-effectiveness assessment of energy resources, with a focus on energy efficiency. The manual describes principles, concepts, and methodologies for sound, balanced assessment.
The NSPM is applicable to electric and gas utilities and jurisdictions where energy efficiency resources are funded by – and implemented on behalf of – electric or gas utility customers.
Energy Efficiency Jobs in America – 2016
By Environmental Entrepreneurs (E2) and E4TheFuture – December 2016
Energy efficiency does more than cut waste and save dollars. It employs 1.9 million Americans, by far the largest sector in the U.S. clean economy. This report highlights the top states. It also includes detailed state fact sheets and specific numbers of energy efficiency jobs on city, county, legislative and congressional district levels – data not available previously.
The report is based on data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics and the U.S. Department of Energy, as well as a comprehensive survey of tens of thousands of businesses across the country. See a jobs per capita comparison.
Occupant Health Benefits of Residential Energy Efficiency
By Tohn Environmental Strategies team, with Foreword by E4TheFuture – November 2016
The paper builds understanding and access to relevant data that can support inclusion of health impacts as a public benefit of energy efficiency. The 35-page paper:
- reviews and summarizes research studies of residential energy efficiency and related ventilation upgrades
- discusses ways that programs have monetized occupant health co-benefits
- identifies where research gaps exist, and/or where research can be improved and leveraged
- provides an overview of innovative programs that combine energy efficiency and health-focused home repairs
E4TheFuture invites readers of this paper to collaborate on integrated approaches to improving indoor air quality of homes across the U.S. and beyond. See a two-page summary.
Harnessing the Power of Tradable Credit Markets for Energy Efficiency
E4TheFuture Case Study – September 2016
Connecticut has successfully incentivized energy efficiency project development through market-based tradable credits. The state has quietly stimulated projects for its benefit as well as for EE Providers and their clients.
The CT RPS Class III program has effectively harnessed the market structure originally designed to drive private investment in renewable power generation. This case study reviews the steps for trading energy efficiency credits in Connecticut.
Many other states would benefit from setting up or participating in similar programs.
One EE Project: Two Compliance Markets
E4TheFuture Case Study – September 2016
A national ESCO is profiting by delivering compliance value into two markets: Connecticut’s Renewable Portfolio Standard (CT RPS) and the Independent System Operator of New England’s Forward Capacity Market.
This energy efficiency project is an example of a private sector entity registering an aggregation of energy efficiency measures and selling both the related MWh energy savings and the MW electric capacity. The two commodities are documented in two different tracking systems due to the evolution of public policy; however, the opportunity provided to energy efficiency vendors by similarly diverse markets could be tracked via a single system in other states.
How a National Energy Efficiency Registry Can Provide Expanded Services
E4TheFuture Case Study – September 2016
When fully developed and operational, the National Energy Efficiency Registry (NEER) would provide automated administration of eligibility and verified savings applications, offering states a powerful tool for public policy.
Included: An illustration of how NEER administration would streamline the eligibility and verified saving application process for both Client Jurisdictions and EE Providers.
Disclaimer: This case study has been prepared by and is the sole responsibility of E4TheFuture. E4TheFuture is not a National Energy Efficiency Registry (NEER) project partner and does not represent the U.S. DOE, the six states, and/or partners The Climate Registry (TCR) and NASEO. As such, the views expressed in this document are strictly those of E4TheFuture and may not coincide precisely with information provided by the above-referenced project, participating states, or project partners.
Regional Energy Markets: Do Inconsistent Governance Structures Impede U.S. Market Success?
Body of paper authored by Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. – July 2016
The paper presents current research about the role of new technologies and distributed resources in wholesale U.S. electricity markets. E4TheFuture commissioned Synapse Energy Economics to review energy markets’ governance by Regional Transmission Organizations and Independent System Operators.
- A clear summary identifying the governance structure in each of the seven energy markets overseen by an ISO/RTO
- Analysis of the impact of governance on the extent to which the full range of energy resources can participate in wholesale markets
- A demonstration of the inconsistent approach to governance and/or market inclusion of particular energy resources
- Appendices containing historical context and a summary of RTO/ISO treatment of energy efficiency, demand response and distributed generation resources in transmission planning
E4TheFuture intends that the paper will help inform policy-focused organizations who wish to work together to improve governance structures and market rules.
Use of “Third-Party Entities” for State and Federal Implementation of the Clean Power Plan: Issues and Options
White paper by Kyle Danish, Hayley Fink, and Avi Zevin of Van Ness Feldman, LLP – July 2016
This paper explores possible roles for various types of private or public entities to carry out functions in mass-based and rate-based programs to implement the Clean Power Plan (“CPP”). The paper refers to these entities as “third party entities” (“TPEs”).
As the paper illustrates, TPEs could provide services helpful both for states implementing the CPP and for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as it implements a Federal Plan, including the Clean Energy Incentive Program (“CEIP”).
This paper does not necessarily represent the views of Van Ness Feldman, LLP, or its clients. The paper has benefited from review and input by E4TheFuture, Advanced Energy Economy, and the National Association of State Energy Officials. All errors and omissions are by the authors.
An Analysis of the Impact of Additional RE Procurements and RPS Targets on MA RPS & GWSA Compliance
Authored by Jason Gifford, Sustainable Energy Advantage, LLC – June 2016
Prepared on behalf of E4TheFuture for Massachusetts Sierra Club’s use in educating legislators in advance of the June 30 vote on energy legislation. Concise analysis and demonstration of why/how: 1) policy to increase renewable energy procurement should be balanced with policy to increase renewable energy demand, and 2) to count additional procured supply toward Global Warming Solutions Act limits, Renewable Portfolio Standard targets must be increased so that RECs are retained.
Energy Savings Prediction Methods for Residential Energy Efficiency Upgrades
Authored by Robin LeBaron, Kara Saul-Rinaldi, Steve Cowell – Feb/Mar 2016
This is a response to the U.S. Department of Energy’s Request for Information on “how to improve savings prediction methods for residential energy efficiency upgrades.” The authors propose a way to incorporate integrating modeled and metered savings into residential energy efficiency upgrades. Essential policy considerations are addressed such as risk, upfront costs, access to utility data, potential for gaming, and customer equity.
Aiming Higher: Realizing the Full Potential of Cost-Effective Energy Efficiency in New York
Authored by Synapse Energy Economics, Inc. – Apr 2016
Prepared for Natural Resources Defense Council, E4TheFuture, CLEAResult, Lime Energy, Association for Energy Affordability, and Alliance for Clean Energy New York.
From the introduction: “Despite New York’s aggressive clean energy goal of obtaining half its electricity from renewable sources by 2030, recent New York Public Service Commission (PSC or Commission) decisions call for energy efficiency targets to remain at current levels into the near to intermediate future. In the Clean Energy Standard (CES) White Paper, DPS Staff assumed annual incremental energy efficiency savings of 2,227 gigawatt-hours (GWh) statewide through 2030. This level of savings translates into a flat 1.4 percent annual savings as a percent of 2014 sales throughout the period of analysis.
This level of savings is far below what is possible from a technical and economic standpoint, and also relative to what nearby states are already achieving. Energy efficiency is New York’s most cost-effective resource, and yet the state is at risk of losing out on much of its potential in coming years.”
Expanded HEAT Loan Initiative / Barrier Mitigation Project: Mid-Program Review
This paper presents an update on progress addressing key barriers blocking many Massachusetts consumers from completing energy efficiency work on their homes. The Expanded HEAT Loan Initiative has proven to be valuable in removing barriers and facilitating investments. The report includes:
- A clear explanation of the issues
- Description of measure types new to the Mass Save® program
- Status of installations including lessons learned
- E4TheFuture’s recommendations for further improvements
Although Massachusetts leads the nation in delivering energy efficiency programs, much work remains before all homes and buildings are operating at top efficiency.
New York Testimony on Non-Energy Benefits
Authored by Dr. Lisa Skumatz — Sept 2015
The NY Public Service Commission sought information about non-energy benefits (NEBs) as part of their Reforming Energy Vision (REV) proceeding. E4TheFuture commissioned testimony for whole-home single and multifamily energy efficiency programs that demonstrates relevance for New York. This document by Dr. Lisa Skumatz provides:
- A lucid explanation of NEBs—types and importance
- Why benefit-cost analyses excluding NEBs are only half what they should be
- Recommended NEB Values as Multipliers on Bill Savings
- “Adders” – societal benefits associated with low income programs
- Literature review on state of the art for multifamily programs, gas vs. electric programs, and specific measures
Dr. Skumatz’s testimony provides values useful in the near term to update and reduce the bias in benefit-cost tests for efficiency programs. NEBs approximately double program “benefits” and the value of the associated benefit-cost ratio.